Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman’s life. It can be categorized into primary and secondary. Primary amenorrhoea is when a woman never had menstrual periods, and in secondary amenorrhoea, there is the absence of menstrual periods in a woman who was previously menstruating.
The causes of primary amenorrhea are defects in the ovaries, problems with the reproductive organs, and issues with the pituitary gland, and the central nervous system. Secondary amenorrhea can result from natural causes like pregnancy, and breastfeeding or other causes like low body weight, mental stress, excessive exercise, hormonal imbalance, and birth control pills.
A variety of tests are necessary for the diagnosis of amenorrhoea including pregnancy, thyroid function test, ovary function test, male hormone test, and prolactin test. Treatment mainly depends on the cause of amenorrhea. If the cause of amenorrhea is a hormonal imbalance then hormone replacement therapy can be administered. If amenorrhea is due to malnutrition, a proper diet plan can cure the patient successfully. In some cases, surgery is required that can treat anatomical causes of amenorrhea.